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An anal fissure is a tear in the tissue of anus. The anus is the last part of digestive tract. It’s at the end of rectum. It has a ring of muscle (sphincter) that opens during a bowel movement to allow stool (feces) to pass through. A fissure is caused by the anal tissue stretching too much. This can happen during a hard bowel movement. It Causes pain and bleeding.
Anal fissures are not the same as hemorrhoids. But the Symptoms can be similar. Hemorrhoids are inflamed blood vessels in or just outside the anus. An anal fissure is one of the most common non-cancer (benign) conditions of the anus and rectum.
The most common cause is large or hard stools because of constipation. A fissure may also be caused by severe diarrhea, anal sex, vaginal childbirth, or an object inserted into the anus.
A person is more at Risk for an anal fissure if they have any of the below:
An anal fissure is one of the most common Causes of anal pain and bleeding. Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each person.
They can include:
The Symptoms of an anal fissure may be like other health conditions.
Pain from the fissure can cause muscle spasm in the anal sphincter muscle. This can make it hard for the fissure to heal. The spasm can also cause more tearing during bowel movements. This cycle can lead to a chronic anal fissure in many people.
Other Complications can include:
Tests may include:
Symptoms and health history and physical exam. The physical exam will include anal area. Gently separate buttock and look at the area around the anus for a tear and other signs of a fissure. Where the fissure is may help find the cause. Fissures most often occur in the back center of the anus. Some occur in the front center of the anus. Fissures that occur on the sides of the anus may be caused by conditions such as Crohn’s disease.
Treatment will depend on Symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
An acute anal fissure is one that lasts for a short time. It often heals within 6 weeks with simple Treatment. It may heal when constipation is treated.
A chronic anal fissure is one that lasts for 6 weeks or more. This may need more Treatment, such as surgery.
If anal fissure doesn’t heal well, it may be a problem with anal pressure because of the sphincter muscle. This prevents blood from flowing normally through the blood vessels in the anus. The reduced blood flow prevents healing. Treatment may include medicine to put on the fissure and botulinum toxin shots (injections). These can help with blood flow and may help an anal fissure heal.
Other Treatments include:
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