Cardiac Sciences & Cardiology

About the Speciality

The branch of general medicine that deals with all kinds of cardiac aliments, is known as Cardiology. It includes diseases like Heart Attack, Angina, Heart failure, Rhythm disorders, congenital and valvular heart disease.

JNU Hospital is the best heart hospital in Jaipur that uses the most modern and state-of-the-art tools to offer diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of heart related symptoms. Our panel of well experienced and the best cardiologist in Jaipur layout a personalized management plan in agreement with patient in addition to tailor-made modifications of cardiac risk factors.

Diagnostic & Clinical Services

  • Early detection and proper treatment in form of medication, intervention (angioplasty and stenting) and open heart surgery if required can lead to early recovery and improvement in quality of life.
  • Heart failure also needs very precise treatment in form of medication, diet, life style changes and implantation of devices like CRT-D or ICD in selected cases.
  • Rhythm disorders need medication and evaluation and treatment (EPS and RFA) in case symptoms persist. For heart blocks and sinus arrests, patients need pacemaker implantation.
  • Congenital and valvular heart disease needs treatment in form of device closure and percutaneous valvuloplasty, may also need open heart surgery later on.

 

What we treat

At Division of Cardiac Sciences & Cardiology of JNU, we invest our efforts, time, and expertise to detect and treat various types of Ailments.

Myocardial Infarction (MI) is commonly known as Heart Attack. MI occurs due to sudden and complete blockage of one of the three arteries supplying blood to the heart. The common symptoms of MI are chest pain with or without radiation to other parts of the body, sweating, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, Breathlessness, and in massive MI cases, there is collapse/ death of the patient. The risk factor for MI are male sex, advancing age, use of tobacco products, diabetes, raised cholesterol, hypertension, and family history. MI requires immediate and urgent treatment to save a life. Thrombolysis or primary angioplasty with a stent is the main treatment option.

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The presence of blood pressure readings above the accepted normal values is known as Hypertension (HTN). Blood pressure more than 140/90mmHg is accepted as HTN. Hypertension is the leading cause of kidney damages, paralysis, bleeding in the brain, heart attack, and heart failure. The long-term presence of HTN leads to thickening of heart muscles, damage of eye vessels, and abnormal kidney function. Lifestyle modification including salt restriction along with medication is the mainstay of the treatment.

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The chest pain or discomfort associated with exertion or exercise and relieved by rest or Sublingual nitroglycerine is known as Angina. Patients commonly complain of chest tightness, burning, choking, or squeezing sensations in the chest during episodes of angina. Angina is caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle as a result of a critical blockage in one or more arteries supplying blood to the heart. Patient with angina should immediately consult their Physician to prevent future untoward events.

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The heart is made up of muscles only. Cardiomyopathy is the disease of heart muscles. It is mainly classified into 3 types. Dilated cardiomyopathyis characterized by abnormal dilation or enlargement of heart chambers, leading to decrease contractile function. The main symptoms are breathlessness, fatigue, and swelling of the body. In Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, heart muscles are abnormally thickened and may lead to obstruction to the outflow of blood from the heart. It may cause sudden cardiac death during strenuous exercise or even otherwise. Restrictive cardiomyopathy causes Abnormality in the filling of heart chambers. It mainly causes swelling of neck veins, swelling of the abdomen and limbs. Cardiomyopathies are diagnosed by Echocardiography, CT, and MRI of the heart.

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It is a disease of aging. The accumulation of calcium on the Aortic valve leaflets and adjoining structures leads to the restrictive opening of leaflets. The patient commonly complains of shortness of breath, chest pain, and dizziness. Infiltration of calcium into the electrical conduction system of the heart may lead to slow heart rate or abnormal heart rate. Nowadays, Trans catheter Aortic wall implantation (TAVI) is the preferred mode of treatment over surgical aortic wall replacement (SAVR) for this condition.

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DVT is the formation of blood clots in the deep veins of the body, commonly affecting the veins of the legs, pelvis, and arms. The risk factors for DVT are prolonged immobilization after surgery/hospitalization, Cancer, pregnancy, trauma, plasters of limbs, heart failure, etc. The affected limb is usually swollen and painful. The diagnosis can be confirmed by the ultrasound study. Anticoagulant therapy is the mainstay treatment of DVT.

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Pulmonary embolism is the leading cause of in-hospital deaths. Pulmonary embolism occurs, when a clot in a deep vein is dislodged and migrates into the pulmonary artery. CT pulmonary angiography is the gold standard for establishing the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Blood clots in the pulmonary artery, completely or partially block the blood flow to one or both lungs, leading to chest pain, breathlessness and, and a fall in blood pressure in severe cases. Pulmonary embolism requires urgent thrombolytic or mechanical thrombolytic therapy to save the life.

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Pericardial effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space formed by two layers of the pericardium. Normally, there is little or no fluid in the pericardial space. The collection of fluid in the pericardial space compresses the heart thus hampering its filling capacity. The common symptoms of pericardial effusion are chest pain, breathlessness, and low blood pressure. Tuberculosis is a common cause of pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion can be diagnosed with the help of echocardiography. Percutaneous or surgical pericardiocentesis is required in cases affecting heart function and causing low blood pressure.

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Rheumatic heart disease is the sequela of recurrent rheumatic fever in childhood. Rheumatic fever is caused by the recurrent sore throat in childhood and is usually associated with overcrowding and low socioeconomic strata. RHD causes thickening, scarring, and deformity of valve leaflets and their associated structures. This leads to either leaking or obstruction of the heart valve alone or in combination. RHD commonly affects mitral and aortic valves. Rheumatic fever can be prevented by monthly injections of long-acting penicillin. The main symptoms of RHD are shortness of breath, fatigue, and palpitations. RHD affected heart valve can be treated percutaneously or by surgical intervention.

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Abnormality in the heart rate or rhythm is known as cardiac arrhythmia. The normal heart rate is between 60-100 beats per minute. Bradyarrhythmia is a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute. It causes fatigue, heart failure, dizziness, and syncope. A heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute min is called tachyarrhythmia. A heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute with exercise or fever is known as sinus tachycardia and not as tachyarrhythmia. The heart rhythm may become irregular in arrhythmia. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia, and it is associated with aging. Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke. Ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation are life-threatening conditions and required immediate hospitalization and treatment.

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Procedures

Coronary Angiography

It is a diagnostic invasive procedure. It is done under local anesthesia. It requires a day care admission. Prerequisite are a few blood tests including kidney functions and serology and echocardiography of heart.

Coronary Angiography

Intra-Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS)

It is a diagnostic ultrasound test performed during the angiography. This test uses sound waves to see inside blood vessels. It is useful for evaluating the coronary arteries that supply the heart.

Intra-Vascular Ultra Sound (IVUS)

Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)

Fractional flow reserve is a technique used in coronary angiography to accurately diagnose if the narrowing is ‘narrow-enough’ to need a stent or can it be treated with medicines. It reduces the need for stent placement according to current research.

Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)

Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL)

Just like kidney stones are disintegrated using sound wave-based lithotripsy, at JNU Hospital we offer same procedure in severely calcified coronary arteries. This is state-of-the-art technique and we are one of the few in India to offer this.

Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL)

IABP Insertion 

This is an emergency procedure adjunct to the coronary angioplasty during the heart attack. This is needed when the patient is in heart failure during heart attack and blood pressure dropped leading to critical situation. This device is implanted for few days through the groin and support the blood pressure and speedy recovery after severe heart attack.

IABP Insertion 

ICD/CRT-D Implantation

The procedure is done in a same way as pacemaker implantation. The selection of patient requires few tests to ascertain the need and type of device. It is done under local anesthesia through a percutaneous pocket incision. The patients requires at least 3 days of hospital stay. 

ICD/CRT-D Implantation

Pacemaker Implantation

Pacemaker is implanted in patients who have symptomatic bradycardia and heart block .The symptoms may be dizziness, light headedness, pre syncope (chakkar), and syncope. The procedure is done under local anesthesia, preferably through the left or the nonworking side .A small incision is made just below the collar bone and pacemaker wire is positioned in the right sided chambers through the subclavian vein. The generator is then attached and site sutured. The patient is discharged within 72 hours. The local site needs care for about 10 days and the patient is back to work soon. 

Pacemaker Implantation

Pericardiocentesis

It is the procedure of removing collected secretion or blood in the pericardial space. The collection may be because of varied reasons and is removed only if either its presence is life threatening or the fluid is required for diagnostic assessment. The procedure is done in cardiac catheterisation lab under fluoroscopy. It is done under the effect of local anesthesia. Only after explaining the procedure details to the patients and attendants, informed consent is taken for same and thereafter the effusion drained.

Pericardiocentesis

Consult with experienced Doctors

JNU is home to some of the most eminent doctors in the world, most of whom are pioneers in their respective arenas and are renowned for developing innovative and revolutionary procedures
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