Bipolar Disorder

Episodic illness, characterized by episodes of both mania and depression. The lifetime prevalence is 1%. Male to female prevalence is 1:1. Mean age of onset is mid 20’s.

Manic episode is characterized by elevated mood, increases activity, increased talkativeness, decreased need for sleep, grandiosity, distractibility and patients may also develop psychotic symptoms.

Aetiology: Neurotransmitter disturbances especially dopamine and serotonin.

  • Psychological and social and environmental stresses are also known to precipitate the episodes.
  • It is heritable disorders as genetics play a part in occurrence.


  • Mood stabilizers
  • Antidepressants
  • Antipsychotics
  • Psychotherapies.