Depression

It is characterized by sadness of mood, anhedonia, feeling of worthlessness and hopelessness, lack of energy and concentration, appetite disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, sleep disturbances and suicidal thoughts.

Symptoms:

  • Aetiology: Biological factors in the form of neurotransmitter disturbances especially serotonin, hormonal disturbances, neuroanatomical disturbances.
  • Various medical disorders predispose to depression as well most commonly- hypothyroidism, diabetes, and various vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
  • Neuroanatomical: Decreased activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and increased activity in amygdala.
  • Genetic: there is found to a role of cAMP response element protein on chromosome 2, and serotonin transporter gene.
  • Psychological theories: according to these negative thoughts have a central role in development of depression. It is the second most prevalent mental health disorder according to WHO with a lifetime prevalence of 12%. It affects females twice compared to males. Depression is the most common cause of suicide.

Diagnosis

For diagnosis minimum of 5 symptoms should persists for at least 2 weeks.

Treatment

  • Pharmacotherapy in the form of Tricyclic antidepressants, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.
  • Psychotherapy: Cognitive behaviourtherapy , interpersonal therapy.
  • ECT in cases of suicide risk
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Vagal stimulation
  • Deep brain stimulation
close
close
close