Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the retina.

The condition can develop in anyone with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Longer duration and uncontrolled diabetes are the greatest risk factor for developing diabetic retinopathy.

  • Spots or dark strings floating in your vision (floaters)
  • Blurred vision or vision loss
  • Dark or empty areas in your vision

When to see an eye doctor: If you have diabetes, see your eye doctor for a yearly eye exam with dilation even if your vision seems fine. Contact your eye doctor immediately if your vision becomes blurry, spotty, or hazy.

  • Vitreous hemorrhage
  • Retinal detachment
  • Glaucoma
  • Blindness

Over time, too much sugar in your blood can block tiny blood vessels of the retina, cutting off its blood supply.

As a result, new vessels grow, but they are fragile and eventually leaks leading to diabetic retinopathy.

There are two types of diabetic retinopathy:

  • Early diabetic retinopathy. In this more common form — called nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) — new blood vessels aren't growing (proliferating).
  • Advanced diabetic retinopathy-more severe type, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy in which newly formed blood vessels leak.
  • Manage your diabetes with proper blood sugar level monitoring.
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin test, or hemoglobin A1C test, reflects your average blood sugar level for the two- to three-month period before the test. It should be under 7%.
  • Keep blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Pay attention to vision changes.
  • Having diabetes for a long time or its poor control
  • High blood pressure and cholesterol level
  • Pregnancy
  • Tobacco use

How is it diagnosed?

  • A comprehensive dilated eye exam.
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides cross-sectional images of the retina that will help determine how much fluid, if any, has leaked into retinal tissue.
  • Fluorescein angiography-Examination of blood vessels of retina

How is it treated?

Early diabetic retinopathy

  • Might not need treatment right away.
  • Good blood sugar control can usually slow the progression.

Advanced diabetic retinopathy

  • Injecting medications into the eye of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors which help stop the growth of new blood vessels and decrease fluid buildup.
  • Photocoagulation -this laser treatment can stop or slow the leakage of blood and fluid in the eye.
  • Vitrectomy- A surgery to remove blood and other scars from the eye.

Consult with experienced Doctors

JNU is home to some of the most eminent doctors in the world, most of whom are pioneers in their respective arenas and are renowned for developing innovative and revolutionary procedures
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