Melasma is a common acquired skin disorder that presents as a bilateral, blotchy, brownish facial pigmentation.

Symptoms and complication:

Melasma presents as bilateral, asymptomatic, light-to-dark brown macules or patches with irregular borders.

Melasma can have a severe impact on quality of life due to its visibility.

Causes and prevention:

The cause of melasma is complex; it has been proposed to be a photoageing disorder in genetically predisposed individuals.

Risk Factors:

Family history, Sun exposure, Hormones — pregnancy, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, Medications and scented products

Diagnosis: Clinical, Woods lamp


  • General measures: Year-round, life-long sun protection — broad-brimmed hat, broad-spectrum sunscreen
  • Discontinue hormonal contraception if possible
  • Cosmetic camouflage.
  • Topical therapy: Azelaic acid, Kojic acid, Ascorbic acid, etc
  • Oral Tranexamic acid
  • Chemical peels and lasers