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It encompasses behavioural dependence, physical dependence and psychological dependence. Drug Abuse and Addiction are among the most serious Public Health problems that our society is facing. The substance related disorders encompass separate psychoactive drugs which includes alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives and hypnotics, stimulants, tobacco and other substances.
Aetiology: These drugs act on particular receptors and brain pathways and have found to play a central role in development of substance use disorders. Various neurotransmitters like opioids, catecholamines and GABA. There is also a role of genetic factors in development of substance disorders. Learning and conditioning is also known to contribute to these disorders.
There are four important patterns of substance use disorders which may overlap each other- Acute intoxication, withdrawal state, dependence syndrome, harmful use.
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