Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: It is a common neuropsychiatric disorder of child-hood. Occurs in 3% of the school age children and affects boys more than girls.
The onset occurs before the age of 7 years and a large majority of patients’ exhibit symptoms by 4 years of age
There are 4 clinical subtypes:
Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: it is characterized by poor attention span with distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsivity
Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity
Hyperactivity disorder with conduct disorder.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of teacher’s school report, parent’s report and clinical examination. Neurological examination may reveal soft neurological signs.
Aetiology: Various factors are considered to be responsible for this disorder including minimal brain damage, maturational lag, genetics, neurotransmitters and early psychodynamic factors.
It includes Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, at times anti-psychotic medication.
Psychosocial interventions in the form of social skill training, psychoeducation for parents, behavior therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy.