Child Psychiatry

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: It is a common neuropsychiatric disorder of child-hood. Occurs in 3% of the school age children and affects boys more than girls.

The onset occurs before the age of 7 years and a large majority of patients’ exhibit symptoms by 4 years of age

There are 4 clinical subtypes:

  • Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: it is characterized by poor attention span with distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsivity
  • Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity
  • Residual type
  • Hyperactivity disorder with conduct disorder.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of teacher’s school report, parent’s report and clinical examination. Neurological examination may reveal soft neurological signs.

Aetiology: Various factors are considered to be responsible for this disorder including minimal brain damage, maturational lag, genetics, neurotransmitters and early psychodynamic factors.

Treatment:

It includes Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, at times anti-psychotic medication.

Psychosocial interventions in the form of social skill training, psychoeducation for parents, behavior therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy.

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