Infertility

Infertility is the inability to become pregnant after one year of intercourse without contraception involving a male and female partner. Estimates range from 12% to 28%.

Male infertility is responsible for 20–30% of infertility cases, while 20–35% are due to female infertility, and 25–40% are due to combined problems in both parts. In 10–20% of cases, no cause is found.

There are often no outwardly visible signs of infertility. Most women are diagnosed with infertility only after they are unable to conceive for over a year. In cases of infertility caused by ovulation disorders, the woman may notice an irregular or absent menstrual cycles. The most common complication of infertility treatment is a multiple pregnancy — twins, triplets or more. Generally, the greater the number of fetuses, the higher the risk of premature labor and delivery, as well as problems during pregnancy such as gestational diabetes.

What causes female infertility? The most common causes of female infertility include problems with ovulation, damage to fallopian tubes or uterus, or problems with the cervix. Age can contribute to infertility because as a woman ages, her fertility naturally tends to decrease. Maintain a healthy weight. Overweight and underweight women are at increased risk of ovulation disorders. Quit smoking. Tobacco has multiple negative effects on fertility, as well as your general health and the health of a fetus. Avoid alcohol. Heavy alcohol use may lead to decreased fertility. Reduce stress.

  • Age.
  • Hormone issue that prevents ovulation.
  • Abnormal menstrual cycle.
  • Obesity.
  • Being underweight.
  • Having a low body-fat content from extreme exercise.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Structural problems (problems with the fallopian tubes, uterus or ovaries).

How is it diagnosed?

A doctor or WHNP takes a medical history and gives a physical examination.

They can also carry out some basic tests on both partners to see if there is an identifiable reason for not having achieved a pregnancy. If necessary, they refer patients to a fertility clinic or local hospital for more specialized tests. The results of these tests help determine the best fertility treatment.

How is it treated?

Treatment depends on the cause of infertility, but may include counselling, fertility treatments, which include in vitro fertilization. According to ESHRE recommendations, couples with an estimated live birth rate of 40% or higher per year are encouraged to continue aiming for a spontaneous pregnancy.[72] Treatment methods for infertility may be grouped as medical or complementary and alternative treatments. Some methods may be used in concert with other methods. Drugs used for both women and men[73] include clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, aromatase inhibitors, and metformin.

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