Neural Tube Defects

Neutral tube defects are one of commonest birth defects, occurring due to the failure of normal fusion of neural plate to form neural tube during the first 28 days following conception.

Etiology: Exact cause is not known many facts may be responsible for causing neural tube defects:

  • Genetic causes
  • Nutritional factors
  • poor mistake of folic acid
  • Intake of anti-epileptic medications during pregnancy.
Neural Tube Defects

There are two types of Neural tube defects:

  • Open neural tube defects: These occur when the brain or penal card are exposed at birth through a defect in the skill or vertebrae examples: Spina bifida anenceperaly, encephalocele.
  • Closed neural tube defects: In such defects, the spinal cord is caused by skin. Such as lipomeningocele, Spinal code.

Spina Bifida: Is divided in to two sub closes:

  • Spina bifida occulta
  • Spina befida cystic
  • Loss of bladder or bomel control
  • Loss of sensation
  • Variable paralysis of the legs
  • Abnormal feet and legs such as dub foot
  • Hydrocephalic
  • Dimpling of sacral area

How is it diagnosed?

  • Ultra-sonography: To look for any abnormal growth of fetus.
  • Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein at 16-20 weeks.
  • Amniotic acetyl cholinesterase.
  • Medical care: The patient should be positioned in prone position to prevent pressure in the defect.
  • The neurosis with an open NTD should be kept warm and the defect covered with sterile wet salthe dressing.
  • IU Antibiotics should be initiated.
  • Surgical Management: The closure of the defect should be done within 1 to 3 days of delivery.

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